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Hence, there should be an optimal strategy for reproductive investment that is a product of the combined forces of sex allocation and sperm competition (Charnov, 1996).An individual's optimal strategy is likely to depend on the total amount of reproductive resources available to it and how that compares to the resources of potential mates.Therefore, they can evolve sperm competition strategies similar to those studied in dioecious species (Baur, 1998; Charnov, 1996; Michiels, 1998).Assuming a trade-off between resources (or energy) invested in sperm and eggs, any amount of resource devoted to sperm competition reduces that available for female function.Mary, 1994; Tomiyama, 1996; van Duivenboden and ter Maat, 1985; Yusa, 1996), and this variation is not currently explained by models that predict a single population strategy.

A few empirical studies have shown that hermaphrodites do flexibly adjust mating strategies depending on relative behaviors or traits of the current mate (De Witt, 1996; Peters and Michiels, 1996; Tomiyama, 1996; Vreys and Michiels, 1998; Yusa, 1996).Simultaneous hermaphroditism is widespread throughout the animal kingdom and is the primary mode of reproduction among several invertebrate groups including flatworms, arrow worms, sea slugs, land snails, barnacles, earthworms, and leeches (Ghiselin, 1969; Michiels, 1998).Many simultaneous hermaphrodites have internal fertilization and long-term sperm storage in an organ that can hold a limited amount of sperm (Baur, 1998; Michiels, 1998).In an earlier model, Charnov (1996) provided the first predictions of sex allocation for sperm-storing simultaneous hermaphrodites that mate multiply.When there are diminishing returns to sperm transfer in species with limited sperm-holding capacity, less than half of the reproductive resources for one mating event should be invested in male function.

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An increase in the reproductive resources available to individuals, an increase in the efficiency of converting resources into sperm, or a decrease in the size of the sperm storage organ all result in greater potential to displace sperm, which in turn leads to selection for reduced investment in male function in a population.

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